INDEX OF GENERAL SUBJECTS
 

A

Ancient Moon Pavilion. See Guyue Xuan

Apricot Grove Studio, 32-1:36-37; 32-3:35-36

Archaism

    in Qianlong court, 45-1:4, 8-9

Archers’ thumb rings, 35-3:16

Attiret, Jean-Denis, 38-2:40

Auctions

    Beijing 2005, 37-3:45-47

    conditions of sale, 30-3:24

    first snuff bottle auction, 38-3:41

    history of snuff bottle auctions, 38-2:49

Hong Kong 1997, 30-1:28-31

Hong Kong 1998, 30-3:28-32

Hong Kong 2000, 32-3:30-36

Hong Kong 2004, 36-2:35-40

Hong Kong 2013, 45-2:36-44; 45-3:44-49

Hunter collection 1998, 30-4:36

London 1999, 31-3:26; 31-3:34-36

London 2001, 33-2:36-37; 33-3:33-35

London 2002, 34-2:28-32; 34-3:39-40

London 2003, 35-2:34-38; 35-3:36-40

London 2004, 36-2:31-33; 36-3:35-38

London 2005, 37-3:38-44

London 2006, 38-2:43-46; 38-3:35-36

London 2007, 39-3:31-35

London 2013, 45-3:37-43

Mayan snuff bottle, 38-3:41

multiple lots, 38-2:43-44

New York

    Christie’s 1998, 30-3:26-27; 30-4:34-35

    Christie’s 1999, 31-2:33

    Christie’s 2000, 32-1:35-38; 32-3:29

    Christie’s 2002, 34-1:32-35

    Christie’s 2003, 35-1:24-26

    Christie’s 2004, 36-1:40

    Christie’s 2005, 37-1:28-32; 37-2:39

    Christie’s 2007, 39-1:37-40; 39-3:36-38

    Christie’s 2013, 45-1:37-42

    Sotheby’s 1998, 30-3:23-26; 30-4:31-34

    Sotheby’s 1999, 31-2:33-36

    Sotheby’s 2000, 32-1:38-40; 32-3:29

    Sotheby’s 2001, 33-1:32-35; 33-3:30-32

    Sotheby’s 2003, 35-1:24, 26-31

    Sotheby’s 2004, 36-1:35-40

    Sotheby’s 2005, 37-1:32-38

    Sotheby’s 2007, 39-1:40

      online, 32-3:29

      pre-sale estimates, 36-2:32

Robert C. Eldred Co.

Summer Asian Sale 2000, 32-2:35

Summer Asian Sale 2003, 35-2:39-40

Summer Asian Sale 2007, 39-2:46-48

 

B

Badges of rank, 38-3:4-12

Baishe zhuan, 33-2:9-10

Bai Shi (Baishi), 34-3:17-18; 39-1:39

Bao Jun, 45-2:9

Base marks. See INDEX OF PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF BOTTLES, BASE MARKS

Bavarian glass, 30-4:29-30; 31-3:32; 32-1:18-26

Belleville, Charles de, 37-2:4

Bibliotheca Nicotiana, 38-3:13

Bi disc, 30-2:6; 35-3:13

Bi Rongjui (artist), 34-1:15

Blue and white porcelain, 31-2:12-21

Bole, 34-2:6-7

Bonsai, 32-3:19

Boot bottles, 37-1:34

Boxer Rebellion, 34-1:12-13

Bragge, William, 38-3:13-14; 39-2:18

Buddhism, 34-1:8

    buried Buddhas in Qingzhou, 34-2:28

    Chan sect, 32-1:5, 9

    cintamani, 32-2:22

    elephant symbolism, 33-3:19-20

    in Qianlong period, 45-1:5, 6

    Qing emperors, 33-3:22

    symbols, 30-4:36; 38-3:7

    Tibetan Gelugpa, 33-1:7, 8, 15

Burma, Qing period, 33-1:9

 

C

Calligraphy, 32-3:14; 34-1:16; 34-2:29; 34-3:4-20

    cultural significance, 32-1:4; 32-3:15-16; 35-3:8

    historical development, 35-3:4-6, 8

    inscriptions, 35-3:9-12; 39-1:21-22

    scholar art, 32-1:5, 7-8

    script styles, 35-3:8

Cameron, Eunice, 39-3:36

Candy boxes, 30-1:3

Canteen snuff bottle, 35-3:37

Cao Cao, 37-1:17-18

Cao Xueqin, 33-1:6

Castiglione, Giuseppe (Lang Shining), 32-2:19; 32-3:19-20; 33-1:15; 33-3:16-17; 36-2:5; 37-2:4; 37-3:40; 38-2:4, 21, 22, 23, 24

Celadon ware, Song dynasty, 32-1:6

Chang’e, 31-3:19-20

Chengde palace complex, 33-1:10-12, 13

Chenghua reign marks, 31-3:24

Cheng Rongzhang (artist), 32-3:33; 34-3:39; 35-1:30; 36-1:13; 36-3:26; 37-3:11; 38-3:44

Cheng Shikui (artist), 38-2:25

Chen Guozhi (artist), 36-2:8; 37-1:36

Cheng Ziqing (artist), 35-3:11

Chen Jintang (artist), 32-3:12

Chen Jie (artist), 45-2:4

Chen Mingyuan, 30-1:27

Chen Renpu (artist), 39-3:10

Chen Shaofu (artist), 34-1:17

Chen Yuanlong, 32-2:4

Chen Zhongsan (artist), 39-3:20

Chinese Inside Painting of the Modern Age, 39-3:8

Chinese life and culture

    agricultural practice, 30-1:11-12

    alcohol consumption, 32-1:16

    ancestor worship, 30-2:4

    art of imitation, 30-2:4-5; 31-3:29; 38-1:11-12

    auspicious motifs, 38-1:40-42

    badges of rank, 38-3:4-12

    biographical dictionaries, 31-3:11, 14

    Bronze Age, 31-3:13; 32-3:4, 6-7; 34-1:6

    bureaucrats, 38-3:4

    burial practices, 32-3:9-10; 34-2:5; 35-3:6-7, 13, 36; 36-1:15; 37-2:20-28; 38-2:18

    cockfighting, 37-2:12-19

    Communist-era snuff bottles, 36-2:9-10; 39-3:8-17

    creative expression in, 31-3:5

    distinguishing features, 34-1:5-6

    dog stories and symbolism, 38-2:15-36

    dragon symbolism and stories, 32-2:16-31

    European contact, 34-1:4, 7, 8

    garden design and cultivation, 45-1:29-32

    goat/sheep symbolism and stories, 35-2:21-25

    horse mythology and symbolism, 34-2:4-12

    hunting practice, 31-3:17; 38-2:19-21

    imperial architecture (Qing dynasty), 33-3:4-23

    inscribed writing on significant objects, 35-3:6-9

    interest in antique styles and motifs, 32-3:4-9; 33-3:9; 34-1:6; 45-1:8-9

    landscape painting and appreciation, 37-1:4-19; 38-1:4, 6-11

    metalworking technique, 39-2:4-7

    monkey symbolism and stories, 36-3:5-17

    moon stories and beliefs, 31-3:19-21

    Nationalist period, 34-1:4-5, 13-14

    nineteenth century, 31-1:28-36; 31-2:4-11, 43

    opium use and trade, 34-1:10-11

    palindromes, 39-3:4-7

    in Qianlong court, 45-1:4

    rabbit stories and beliefs, 31-3:17-23

    reverence for past, 32-1:6

    rise of cities, 38-1:6-8

    role of art, 32-1:5

    scholar art, 32-1:5-17; 32-3:17; 36-3:30; 38-1:7

    significance of jade, 32-3:8-10

    snake mythology and symbolism, 33-2:4-11

    snuff bottle scholarship in study of, 36-2:4-11

    status and role of scholars, 32-1:4-5; 38-1:6, 7-8

    status of gold, 39-2:8

    time and calendar systems, 32-2:16

    tomb bottles, 37-2:20-28

    trade, 34-1:7, 9

    written and spoken language, 32-1:4; 34-3:6-8; 35-3:4-6. See also Calligraphy

    See also Confucius and Confucianism; specific dynasty or period

Chinese Snuff Bottles, by Marcus Huish, 39-2:18

Chinese Snuff Bottles from the Baur Collection, by V�r�ne Nicollier, 39-3:44

Cixi, Empress Dowager, 32-1:17; 33-3:11, 12; 37-2:20; 38-2:25, 26-27; 39-3:11

Cizhou ware, 30-3:4

Coin snuff bottles, 30-1:4-10; 30-2:16; 31-3:35; 33-1:5; 37-2:9

Collecting

    as art form, 31-3:5-6

    esoteric collecting, 31-3:5-16

    Glickman book on collectors and collecting, 38-2:48-49

    insurance, 32-3:26-27; 33-2:39

    motivation, 31-3:6

    trends in China, 39-3:44

    See also Evaluating snuff bottles

Collections

    Albemarle, 36-2:31; 45-1:3

    Altman, Benjamin, 38-2:48

    Asakura, Mr., 31-3:39

    Au Hang Family, 30-1:3; 39-3:28

      cover bottles, 39-3:3

    Balbach, Charles, 39-1:34

    Baur, 39-3:44

    Beatty, Chester, 39-1:4-5

    Bier, Lawrence, 36-1:39-40

    Blair, James, 32-3:21; 35-1:23, 32-34; 38-2:48

    Bloch, Mary and George, 30-1:4, 9, 13, 14, 32; 30-4:3; 31-3:26; 32-2:3; 37-3:25; 39-1:4; 45-2:36-44; 45-3:44-49

    Braga, Paul, 45-1:37

    Bragge, William, 38-3:13

    British Museum, 32-3:4-20

    Burghley House, 31-3:28-29; 38-1:44; 38-2:37-38

    Candler, 30-3:23

    Carpenter, Belle, 33-2:35

    Converse, Edward C., 38-2:48

    Copley, Lionel, 31-3:26

    Crane, 36-2:3; 38-2:3; 39-2:3; 39-3:18, 19-20; 45-2:3

    Crow, Trammel S. and Adina, 36-3:39

    Crozier, Mary, 36-3:27; 38-2:48

    Dagan, Barney and Emma, 45-1:34

    Dane, 39-2:46

    Deng Xiao Ping, 30-2:3

    Du Boulay, Anthony, 35-3:36

    Exstein, Blanche B., 34-1:32-35

    Fausone, Shirley and Vincent, 35-3:3

    Fong Chow, 45-1:33

    Franz, Lutz and Hedda, 31-3:26

    Friedman, Pamela R. Lessing, 30-2:30; 30-3:31; 31-3:3; 37-3:43

    Fuller, Richard, 30-4:20, 23

    Gadient, Ida and Sanford, 31-1:41

    Gilbert, John, 35-2:39

    Golder, Faith and Sylvan, 30-1:32-33

    Grimberg, Joe, 34-1:3

    Guo’an, 32-3:30

    Hamilton, Ann and John, 30-2:3; 33-2:3; 35-1:26

    Hancock, Eric, 34-3:39

    Hasterlik, Bernice Straus, 31-2:33

    Hawaii, 37-1:3; 39-1:3

    Hickmott, Susan, 35-2:39

    Holden, Rachelle, 32-1:35-40

    Hsieh, Robert and Molly, 36-1:35-39

    Hui, Humphrey K. F., 30-1:33; 34-3:3, 34-36

    Hunter, Neal W. and Frances R., 30-4:31-34; 31-2:33, 34

    Isaacs, Diane, 39-2:46

    James, Mary Ann and Henry, 30-4:26-27

    J&J, 30-1:15; 30-3:32; 31-3:14; 33-2:38; 34-1:37; 34-2:34; 35-1:31; 36-2:35-40; 39-1:37-38; 45-3:3

    Kalabushkin, V. S., 30-4:14

    Ko, 30-1:5, 37-3:12-17; 39-1:12

    Lester, Gerd, 45-3:3

    Lester, Pauline, 30-3:23

    Lo, Kenneth K. L., 30-4:3

    Loh, Quentin, 35-1:3

    Lord Cunliffe, 34-3:38-39

    Low, Denis, 31-3:38

    book review, 33-1:29-31, 35; 39-3:39-43

    Mack, Gerry P., 30-2:3, 30; 31-3:26, 34-36

    Marakovic, Nicola, 36-1:3; 38-1:3

    Marquess of Exeter, Burghley House, 31-3:28-29

    Martin, Charles, 31-3:28-29; 38-2:37

    McElney, Brian, 31-3:33

    Melnikov, Dimitry, 30-4:14

    Menil, 33-1:23-24; 33-3:25

    Meriem, 39-3:36-38

    Metropolitan Museum of Art, 45-3:4-13

    Min Chiu Society, 38-1:40-42

    Motozou Hakutsuru, 30-3:25

    Mullin, Terry, 30-3:3; 32-1:3

    National Palace Museum (Taipei), 34-1:5

    North Carolina Museum of Art, 30-3:23; 31-2:33

    Noyes, Melville and Ruth, 30-3:23

    Palmer, Edwin, 45-2:33-35

    Pietsch, Charles, 33-1:32-35; 33-2:35

    Piper, Robert G., 37-2:3; 38-3:3

    Princeton University Museum, 32-1:29; 32-3:21-22

    Pritchard, Helen, 38-3:23

    Pugh, Avrina and Betha, 37-1:32-33

    Renk, Martha M., 37-2:39

    Rothholz, Jack and Florence, 39-2:46

    Sanctum of Enlightened Respect, 31-2:3, 37; 33-3:3; 34-2:3; 34-3:23-24; 35-1:35-36, 38; 39-3:39-43

    Schonfeld, Hildegard, 45-1:37-42

    Silver, Joseph Baruch, 31-2:31-32; 39-3:22-23

    Sin, Christopher C. H., 35-2:3

    Spinnaker, 38-3:38-39

    Stone Picking Studio, 30-3:28

    Strong, Margaret Woodbury, 32-2:35

    Sung, Eugene Y. C., 30-4:20-21

    Takeda, Hirotada, 30-1:33

    Thal, 30-4:20

    Thomson, 39-3:23-24

    Toledo Museum of Art, 37-2:39

    Ueltzen, Florence E., 36-3:39

    Wald, Francine and Bernard, 36-3:3; 37-3:3

    White Wings, 30-1:15

    Wilson, John, 30-3:23

Communist China, 34-1:14; 34-2:35; 35-3:5; 36-2:9-10; 38-2:44

Confucius and Confucianism

    burial practices, 30-2:4

    dragon symbolism, 32-2:18

    Eight Trigrams, 34-2:10-11

    historical development, 30-1:13; 34-1:6-7

    nature worship, 30-1:13; 38-1:6-7

    nostalgia for Zhou dynasty, 32-3:4

    post-Han Neo-Confucian movement, 32-3:4-5

    Song dynasty, 32-1:5

Counterfeits. See Fakes and forgeries; Imitations

Cover bottles

    Au Hang Collection, 30-1; 39-3

    Bloch, Mary and George, 30-4; 32-2

    Crane Collection, 36-2; 38-2; 39-2; 45-2:3

    Fausone, Shirley and Vincent, 35-3

    Grimberg, Joe, 34-1

    Hamilton, John and Ann, 30-2; 33-2

    Hawaii Collection, 37-1; 39-1

    Hui, Humphrey K. F., 34-3

    Lo, Kenneth K. L., 31-1

    Loh, Quentin, 35-1

    Marakovic, Nicola, 36-1; 38-1

    Mullin, Terry, 30-3; 32-1; 33-1

    Niblack Collection, 45-3:3

    Pamela R. Lessing Friedman Collection, 31-3

    Piper, Robert G., 37-2; 38-3

    Sanctum of Enlightened Respect, 31-2; 32-3; 33-3; 34-2

    Sin, Christopher C. H., 35-2

    Wald, Francine and Bernard, 36-3; 37-3

 

D

Daoguang period (1820-1850)

    cricket cults, 30-2:12

    current scholarship, 36-2:8

    dragon motif, 31-3:15; 33-3:9

    life and culture, 31-1:33-34; 31-2:10

    opium use and trade, 34-1:10; 34-3:20

    painting style, 38-3:40

    palindrome-inscribed bottle, 39-3:4

    porcelain, 30-3:14; 31-2:12, 17-18; 35-2:36; 38-3:40; 39-1:28, 29

    portrait of emperor, 30-1:8-9

    reign marks, 31-2:17; 31-3:14, 24; 34-3:8; 38-3:40; 39-1:21, 26-27

    snuff bottle arts, 35-3:20-21; 36-2:8, 24, 25-26; 37-3:10-11

    sociopolitical environment, 31-1:28-29; 36-2:25-26

Daoism, 34-1:8; 34-2:13, 16-17

dragon symbolism, 32-2:18

    scholar art, 32-1:7, 10, 11-12, 13-14; 34-1:15

    symbols, 38-3:7-8

Qing dynasty snuff bottle decoration and, 45-3:14-27

De Brossard, Gabriel-L�onard, 36-1:25; 36-2:5

Decoration of snuff bottles

    historical practice, 31-3:11

    identifying artists, 31-3:11-13

    See also INDEX OF PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF SNUFF BOTTLES, MOTIFS AND SYMBOLISM

Deification of the Gods (novel), 32-2:18-19

D’Entrecolles, Père, 30-2:7; 30-3:6

D’Incarville, Pierre, 36-1:25

Ding Erzhong (artist), 30-1:30; 34-1:15; 34-3:36; 35-1:34-35; 36-3:12; 38-1:40-41; 38-3:38-39; 39-3:40

    auctions

      Eldred 2007, 39-2:47-48

      Hong Kong 2000, 32-3:34-35

      Hong Kong 2004, 36-2:40

      New York 2001, 33-3:30

      New York 2003, 35-1:30

    cover bottle, 34-3:3, 29

    Lanting Preface, 33-1:30, 35

    Orchid Pavilion Preface, 34-3:10-11

    studio name, 31-3:11

Ding Guiling (artist), 35-1:29

Ding princes, 35-1:19, 20

Ding ware, 30-3:4

Dong Xue (artist), 37-1:41; 39-3:10-11

Dragon boat races, 32-2:20-21

Duan Fang, 30-4:32

Duanwu (Dragon Boat) festival, 33-2:7-8; 36-1:4-5

Du Fu, 34-2:19-20

 

E

Eccentric Genius of the Hebei School, 33-1:36, 39

Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou, 34-3:16-17

European and Western influences

    Bavarian glass work, 30-4:29-30

    Christianity and the Taiping Rebellion, 31-2:4-5, 10

    famille-rose palette, 32-2:4-5

    first contact, 34-1:4, 7, 8

    glassmaking, 30-2:6-8, 15, 16; 32-1:20; 36-1:14

    introduction of snuff to China, 34-1:4

    painting, 32-3:19-20

    porcelain work, 30-3:4-6; 31-3:26-28; 36-2:6; 37-2:4

    Qing period, 33-1:5-6, 8, 12-13; 34-1:8-9; 36-2:5-6; 38-2:39-42

    resistance to, 34-1:7

    snuff bottle decoration, 37-2:4-11

    trends in research and scholarship, 36-2:4-5

European subjects

    coin snuff bottles, 30-1:4-7

    hair color and style, 30-4:16; 31-1:33

    Qianlong court snuff bottle decoration, 45-1:4, 9-11

Evaluating snuff bottles, 39-3:25-26, 34-35

    blue and white porcelain, 31-2:12-21; 37-2:38

    collectors’ labels, 34-3:39

    computerized imagery to identify fakes, 33-1:18-22

    dating, 38-3:20-21

    eighteenth century vs. nineteenth century, 39-1:18-30

    glass bottles, 39-1:22-25

    inscriptions, 39-1:21-22

    inside-painted bottles, 34-2:31-32

    ivory identification and testing, 33-2:12-13

    new bottles, 31-2:22-30

    reign marks, 31-2:15-18; 39-1:25-27

    ultraviolet fluorescence, 33-1:18-19; 33-2:12-13

    See also Fakes and forgeries

 

F

Fahua, 30-3:4

Fakes and forgeries, 33-2:36, 38; 38-3:36-37, 44-45; 39-2:52; 39-3:26, 34

    bronze bottles, 37-3:10-13; 39-1:16

    collectors’ labels on bottles, 34-3:39

    Daoguang period, 37-3:10-11

    enamels on glass, 37-3:13-17; 39-1:16-17

    imitations and, 35-3:23

    inside-painted bottles, 39-3:34-35

    Japanese versions of imperial ivory, 39-1:4-15

    modern Jingdezhen production, 35-2:30-31

    Moss lectures on, 36-3:26-27; 37-3:10-21; 38-3:22-23

    See also Evaluating snuff bottles; Imitations

Famille-rose porcelain

    historical development, 30-3:6; 31-3:26-28; 32-2:4-15

    Kangxi period, 32-2:4-9

    Qianlong period, 32-2:12-15; 35-2:4-20

    Yongzheng period, 32-2:9-11

    See also INDEX OF PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF BOTTLES, MATERIALS, Porcelain snuff bottles, famille-rose

Famille-verte, 32-2:4

Feng shui, 33-3:5; 37-1:11

Fiori, Christopher, 37-2:4

Five Tiger Generals, 30-4:8

Fontenay, Jean de, 37-2:5

Forbidden City, 33-3:4, 5-23; 45-1:5

Fragrant Ink Studio, 39-3:10

Fu Jian, 30-4:10

Fuxi and Nüwa, 32-2:24-25; 33-2:5

 

G

Gan Xuanwen (artist), 30-1:30; 34-1:15, 17; 39-3:19

    auctions

      Hong Kong 2000, 32-3:31

      London 2003, 35-2:37

      New York 2000, 32-1:36

      New York 2005, 37-1:35

    calligraphy, 34-3:12, 35; 35-1:34

Gao Liang, 32-2:19

Gaozu, Emperor (Wude reign) (618-626), 30-3:4; 38-2:24

Ge Hong, 31-3:21

Genghis Khan, 33-1:7; 34-1:7

Gherardini, 37-2:4

Glassmaking

    in Bavaria, 32-1:18-19

    evolution in China, 30-2:4, 6-7, 12; 32-1:19-21; 32-3:11

    glass decorating and, 36-1:15

    imitations of other materials, 30-2:4-18; 35-3:17-23; 45-3:4

    for inside-painted bottles, 39-3:8-9

    with metallic inclusions, 45-3:4

    overlay technique, 45-3:5

    Qing dynasty, 36-1:13-27; 36-2:12-29

    red glass technique, 36-1:16-17

    versatility of glass, 45-3:4-5

Glass Workshops, Beijing

    cover bottles, 45-1:3

Gong Xian (artist), 37-1:13-14

Gravereau, Jean Baptiste, 32-2:5; 37-2:4

Guangxu period (1875-1908), 30-1:9; 39-3:11

    dragon motif, 33-3:9

    Empress Dowager Cixi, 33-3:11, 12

Guangzhou school

    auctions

      London 2001, 33-2:36

      New York 2003, 35-1:29

    cover bottles, 33-2:3

    inside-painted bottles, 36-2:8-9

    porcelain, 32-2:8-9, 10; 37-1:37

Guan Yu, 30-4:8

Gui Xianggu (artist)

    auctions

      Hong Kong 1989, 30-1:30

      Hong Kong 2000, 32-3:32

      New York 2000, 32-1:36

    cover bottle, 34-3:29

Guo Xi (artist), 37-1:7-8, 10

Gu Yuexan (artist), 33-1:5

Guyue Xuan

    auctions

      Hong Kong 2000, 32-3:32

      Hong Kong 2004, 36-2:38

      London 2003, 35-2:35

      New York 2000, 32-1:36, 38

      New York 2005, 37-1:28

    cover bottles, 30-3:3, 22

    history, 30-4:31; 31-1:41-42; 31-3:14; 36-2:7, 18-19; 38-1:16-17; 38-3:43

    imperial archives and, 38-1:32

    origins and meaning of names and marks, 31-3:14-15; 38-1:16, 17, 21, 22, 23, 29-31

    snuff bottles, 38-1:17-32

 

H

Hai Wang, 32-2:10, 11

Hallmarks. See INDEX OF PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF BOTTLES, HALLMARKS

Hall of Constancy. See Xingyouheng Tang

Han dynasty (206 b.c.-220 a.d.)

    agriculture, 30-1:12, 13

    ceramic imitations of other materials, 35-3:15

    cloisonné, 30-3:12

    coinage, 30-1:8

    counterfeit materials, 30-2:4

    dragon motif, 32-2:16, 18, 24-25

    glass objects, 30-2:5-6, 7

    imitation of other materials, 35-3:13

    importance of jade, 32-3:9-10

    moon mythology, 31-3:20

    porcelain, 34-1:22

    scholars in, 32-1:4

    snake symbolism and mythology, 33-2:8

    writing and calligraphy, 35-3:7, 8

Han Xiangzi, 45-3:14, 16

Hanlin Academy, 32-1:14

Hao Shouchen, 36-2:39; 37-1:30

Hebei School, 33-1:36, 39; 34-2:35; 39-3:13, 16

Heshen, 34-1:4, 9-10; 36-2:7-8; 39-2:4; 45-1:5

He Shuiqing (artist), 39-3:12

Hexi painting, 33-3:8-9

Hollowing of bottles, 31-3:9

Hongli. See Qianlong period

Hongwu, Emperor (1368-1398), 32-3:14

Hong Xiuquan, 31-2:5

Houyi, 31-3:20

Houzhu, Emperor (565-576), 38-2:25

Huangxing, 33-3:3

Huang Zhong, 30-4:8, 32; 32-1:36; 32-3:32; 34-2:31

Hua Yan (artist), 32-3:19; 34-3:16

Huish, Marcus, 39-2:18

Hu Xuan, 31-3:14-15; 38-1:17, 21, 23, 31

 

I

Imitations

    archaism as decorative motif, 32-3:4-20

    glass imitating other materials, 30-2:4-18; 35-3:13, 17-23; 38-1:11; 45-3:3, 4

    historical practice in China, 30-2:4-5; 35-3:13-17; 38-1:11

    porcelain imitating other materials, 30-3:4-21; 35-3:13-15; 38-1:11; 45-3:7

    See also Fakes and forgeries

Imperial workshops

    cover bottles, 38-2:3

    enameled snuff bottles, 37-3:5-9

    interaction with non-imperial workshops, 30-2:16

    ivory snuff bottles, 39-1:4-15

    porcelain marks, 31-2:16-17

    Yongzheng snuff bottles, 37-2:29-37

Incense, 32-1:6

Inner-Painting Art Research Association, 39-3:12

Inside-painted bottles

    Crane Collection, 39-3:19-20

    evolution of style and technique, 45-3:7-8

    fakes and forgeries, 38-3:36-37

    Golden Age, 39-3:8

    modern practitioners, 39-3:8-17

    portrait bottles, 39-3:25

    techniques, 39-3:8-9

    See also INDEX OF PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF BOTTLES, INSIDE-PAINTED BOTTLES

Insurance, 32-3:26-27; 33-2:39

Iron brushwork, 31-3:11, 12

Ivory

    identification and testing, 33-2:12-13, 28-29

    Japanese versions of imperial ivory, 39-1:4-15

    laws governing, 33-2:29-34

    manufactured substitutes, 33-2:27-28

    natural substitutes, 33-2:24-27

    structure and properties, 33-2:12

    types of, 33-2:13-24

    See also INDEX OF PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF BOTTLES, MATERIALS, Ivory, material

 

J

Jade Hall, 32-1:14

Japan

    Japanese versions of imperial ivory, 39-1:4-15

    snuff bottle fakes from, 37-3:11

    snuff containers of, 30-2:29; 31-3:32; 33-3:35; 36-2:9; 39-1:4-5, 7, 8

    war with China, 34-1:5

Jesuits, 30-2:7-8, 16; 30-3:5-6; 31-3:26-28, 32; 32-1:20; 32-2:4, 5; 33-1:5-6, 8; 34-1:7, 8, 9; 36-1:14; 37-2:4; 38-2:40; 45-1:9

Jewish community in China, 39-3:22

Jia Chang, 37-2:15

Jiangnan style, 31-3:14

Jian Yuan (Grove of Reflection), 30-4:31; 31-1:42

Jianyuan period (134-129 b.c.), 30-4:10

Jiaqinq period (1796-1820)

    base marks, 35-2:15-16

    dragon motif, 33-3:9

    enameled snuff bottles, 30-3:26; 37-3:6; 38-3:3

    glass production, 36-2:26

    life and culture, 31-1:30-32

    marks, 31-3:14; 39-1:5-6, 26

    New York 2002 auction, 34-1:33

    porcelain imitations of other materials, 30-3:19

    reign marks, 31-2:17; 34-3:8; 36-2:24; 38-1:3

    sociopolitical environment, 31-1:28; 36-2:7-8

Jin dynasty (265-420), 30-1:13, 24; 34-3:8-9

Jingdezhen

    cover bottles, 38-1:3; 38-3:3

    destruction, 34-3:20

    false jade vessels, 30-3:4

    historical development, 31-2:14; 35-2:26; 35-3:16-17

    male “baby” snuff bottle, 34-1:3

    modern ceramics, 35-2:26-33

    palindrome-inscribed bottle, 39-3:4

    porcelain making, 31-3:26; 32-1:17; 32-2:6-8, 11-12, 14-15; 35-2:4-6; 35-3:16-17; 45-3:6-7

    Qianlong period, 38-2:7-12 (passim)

    rebuilding of imperial kiln, 34-3:20

    reign marks, 39-1:5-6

    Taiping Rebellion and, 31-2:4-5, 8, 11, 18

    Tang Ying period, 30-3:6-19

Jingyun, 34-2:14

Ju Chao (artist), 36-2:8

Jueshan (artist), 39-3:40

 

K

Kangxi period (1661-1722), 39-3:40-41

    base marks, 32-2:5, 6, 7; 37-3:7; 38-3:34; 39-1:5

    ceramic glazes, 32-1:6-7

    Chengde palace complex, 33-1:10-11

    cloisonn� work, 30-3:12

    enamel on metal, 37-1:29

    famille-rose enamels, 32-2:4-9

    glassmaking, 30-2:7-8, 9-10, 12, 5; 31-3:32; 32-1:20; 36-1:15-20

    Hall of Constancy in, 35-1:19

    imitations of other materials in ceramic or glass, 35-3:16-18

    life and culture, 34-1:9

    porcelain arts, 30-3:5, 6-7; 31-2:13, 14; 31-3:28; 37-2:4; 37-3:11; 38-3:33-34

    portrait of emperor, 37-3:38, 39

    reign marks, 31-3:24; 34-3:9; 36-1:15; 36-2:4; 37-1:25

    snuff use, 32-1:11; 36-1:13; 37-3:40

    yellow snuff bottle, 36-1:14

Katon, 34-1:34

Ke Lan (artist), 39-3:11, 12

Kublai Khan, 34-1:7

Kuixing, 32-2:26

 

L

Lacquer work

    evolution in China, 32-3:13-14

    porcelain imitations, 35-3:15

    See also INDEX OF PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF SNUFF BOTTLES, MATERIALS, Lacquer, material

Lam, Peter, 34-3:34, 35-36

Lambert, John, 32-2:9

Lang Shining. See Castiglione, Giuseppe

Lanting Preface, 32-3:34; 33-1:35; 34-3:10-11; 35-3:12; 39-3:14

Lao Ge, 30-3:11, 13

Laozi, 30-1:23

Lee, King Yee, 39-2:11, 13-15

Li Bo, 34-2:17

Li Cuiling (artist), 39-3:14

Li Hung-chang, 37-2:10

Li Junfeng (artist), 39-3:14-15

Li Junting (artist)

    auctions

      Hong Kong 2000, 32-3:32

      London 1999, 31-3:39

      New York 2002, 34-1:33

      New York 2003, 35-1:25, 26-27

      New York 2005, 37-1:33

    cover bottles, 45-1:3

    imitations, 36-2:21-22

    style, 36-2:20-21

Li Kechang (artist), 32-3:35-36; 39-3:9-10

Lingdi, Emperor (168-188), 38-2:25

Lingnan school. See Guangzhou school

Lin Zexu, 34-1:10

Liquan zi zhi, 36-2:31

Li Shoucheng (artist), 34-2:31-32

Li Song (artist), 32-2:20

Li Tieguai, 32-3:15; 45-3:17-18, 20

Liu Bei, 30-4:8; 39-3:16

Liu Dasheng (artist), 39-3:13-14, 20

Liu Guanxiong, 33-3:3

Liu Hai, 31-3:35; 45-3:19

Liu Kunyan (artist), 39-3:11-12

Liu Sheng, 30-2:5-6

Liu Shouben (artist), 30-1:22; 34-3:28, 29; 37-1:41; 39-3:8, 10, 40

    auctions

      Hong Kong 2000, 32-3:36

      New York 2000, 33-1:33

      New York 2003, 35-1:29

    cover bottles, 33-3:3

Liu Xinkai (Qiushi) (artist), 39-3:13

Liu Xuande, 39-3:16

Liu Yizi (artist), 33-1:36-39; 34-2:36; 36-3:18; 39-3:15-16

Liu Ziyi (artist), 34-2:36; 39-3:15, 16

Liu Zongyuan, 34-2:20

Li Yanting, 37-1:30

Li Yiqing, 30-1:24

Lu Dong (artist), 34-3:16

Lu Dongbin, 45-3:14, 15, 16, 17

Lu Ji, 34-2:18

Lu Jiangguang (artist), 39-3:15

Lu Jiaming, 45-2:10-11

Lu Jun, 45-2:11-19

Luohan imagery, 30-4:9-10; 32-2:30

Lu Xiang (artist), 31-3:12

Lu You, 30-1:14; 39-3:3

 

M

Ma Chao, 30-4:8

Magu, 45-3:19

Manchu dynasty (1644-1912). See Qing dynasty (1644-1912)

Mao Dan, 30-1:12

Ma Shaoxian (artist), 31-3:21

    London 1999 auction, 31-3:34

    New York 2000 auction, 32-1:39

Ma Shaoxuan (artist), 30-1:20, 31; 34-1:15, 16, 17; 34-2:18, 19; 34-3:36; 35-1:34; 36-2:32; 38-2:31; 39-3:20, 25, 42-43; 45-3:7, 8

    auctions, 39-2:47, 48; 39-3:38

      Hong Kong 1998, 30-3:32

      Hong Kong 2000, 32-3:32-33

      Hong Kong 2004, 36-2:39

      Hong Kong 2013, 45-2:37, 39

      London 1999, 31-3:34

      London 2001, 33-2:37

      London 2004, 36-2:33

      London 2005, 37-3:43

      New York 1998, 30-3:27; 30-4:32, 35

      New York 1999, 31-2:34

      New York 2000, 32-1:36, 39

      New York 2002, 34-1:34

      New York 2003, 35-1:25, 29, 30

      New York 2004, 36-1:38, 40

      New York 2005, 37-1:30, 35-36

      New York 2013, 45-1:40

    biography and study of (book review), 30-2:26-30

    cover bottles, 33-3:3; 34-3:3

    European subjects of inside-painted portraits, 37-2:10-11

    Li Shoucheng, 34-2:31

    montage style, 35-3:12

    Orchid Pavilion Preface, 34-3:11-12

    script, 34-3:9, 11-12

Mao Zedong, 34-1:5, 6

Marco Polo, 34-1:8

Mask handles, 31-3:13

Master of the Rocks school, 32-1:40

Materials, snuff bottles. See INDEX OF PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF BOTTLES, MATERIALS

Mayan snuff bottle, 38-3:41

Medicine bottles, 31-2:14

Meiping vase form, 31-3:8, 9

Meng Zishou (artist), 30-4:8; 34-2:4

Metalworking techniques, 39-2:4-7

Miao rebellion, 31-2:8, 11

Ming dynasty (1368-1644)

    calligraphy, 35-3:9

    Central Asian relations, 32-3:11

    dragon motif, 32-2:18-19

    European contact, 34-1:8

    herdboy motif, 30-1:17

    interest in antique styles and motifs during, 32-3:4, 6

    landscape art, 38-1:4-7

    porcelain work, 30-3:6; 32-1:8; 34-1:22; 39-1:29

    reign marks, 31-2:17; 31-3:24; 39-1:27

    scholars in, 32-1:5, 9

    social values, 32-3:6

    tea drinking, 32-1:9

Mint marks, 30-1:4, 5

Mongolia, 30-1:3; 33-1:5

    conquering of China, 34-1:7

    horse motif, 34-2:31

Mongolian-style metal work, 31-3:15-16

    Qing dynasty and, 33-1:7-8, 11-12; 38-2:41

Monk Tiao, 30-4:10; 32-2:30

Motifs and symbolism. See INDEX OF PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF BOTTLES, MOTIFS and SYMBOLISM

Mughal style, 37-1:34

Museums and exhibitions

    Arthur M. Sackler Galleries of Art (Washington, D.C.), 32-3:25

    Art Museum of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, 30-1:33

      Elegance and Radiance: Grandeur in Qing Glass, 32-2:34-35

    Arts of Pacific Asia (Asia Week in New York, 2002), 34-1:36

    Asakura Choso Museum (Tokyo), 31-3:39

    Asia Week (New York 2013), 45-1:33-35

    Asian Art in London 2000, 32-2:34

    Asian Art in London 2001, 33-2:35-37

    Asian Art in London 2002, 34-3:37-40

    Asian Art in London 2003, 35-2:34; 35-3:35-40

    Asian Art in London 2004, 36-2:30-34

    Asian Art in London 2005, 37-3:49

    Asian Art in London 2006, 38-3:33-37

    Asian Art Studio (New York 2013), Treasured Objects of Contemplation, 40-1:33

    Asian Civilisations Museum (Singapore), 31-3:37; 34-3:23-24

      Chinese Snuff Bottles-Treasures from the Sanctum of Enlightened Respect, 31-3:38

      Chinese Snuff Bottles from the Sanctum of Enlightened Respect III, 39-2:53

    Beijing Bao Lee Museum, 35-2:41

    British Museum (London), 31-1:38

    Brussels Oriental Art Fair (2006), 37-3:49

    Burghley House (Stamford, England), 38-1:44; 38-2:37-38

    Chang Foundation (Taipei), 32-1:42-43

    China Institute in America (New York)

      Chinese Snuff Bottles from the Pamela R. Lessing Friedman Collection, 30-2:30; 30-3:31

    Chinese Cultural Center (San Francisco), 32-1:41; 32-2:34

    Chinese University of Hong Kong Art Museum, 36-2:8; 37-3:26; 39-3:44-45

      Inkplay in Microcosm, 34-3:34-36

    Cincinnati Art Museum, 30-1:32

    Collections Baur (Geneva), 32-1:41-42; 33-2:38; 37-1:43

    Crow Museum (Dallas), 36-3:39

    Freer Gallery (Washington, D.C.), 32-3:24

    Frye Museum (Seattle), 30-2:23; 30-4:23

    Grosvenor House Art and Antiques Fair (2006), 37-3:49

    Guggenheim Museum (New York), China: 5000 Years (1998), 30-3:23

    Hillwood House Museum (Washington, D.C.), 32-3:22-23

    Hong Kong Museum of Art, 37-3:26

    Min Chiu Society exhibition, 38-1:40-42

    Houston Museum of Natural Sciences, 30-2:29-30

    Imperial Palace, Beijing, 32-1:41

    International Asian Antique and Art Fair (Hong Kong, 2006)), 37-3:49

    International Asian Art Fair (Asia Week in New York, 2002), 34-1:36

    International Asian Art Fair (Asia Week in New York, 2006), 37-3:49

    Los Angeles County Museum, 35-3:29

      Sumptuous Microcosm: Snuff Bottles from California Collections, 36-2:4

    Maastricht International Fine Art and Antique Fair (2006), 37-3:49

    Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York), 38-2:48; 45-3:4-13

    Manchu Art exhibit, 39-2:53

      When Silk was Gold (1998), 30-3:23

    Newark Museum, 45-1:20-21

    Museum of Tobacco Arts and Crafts (Tokyo), 30-1:33; 31-3:41

    National Museum of History (Taiwan), Jade: Ching Dynasty Treasures, 30-2:29; 30-4:37

    New York Arts of Pacific Asia Show (2006), 37-3:49

    Norton Simon Museum (Pasadena, California), 35-3:26-27

    Oakland Museum of California, 36-2:41

    Pacific Asia Museum (Pasadena, California), 35-3:27

    Palace Museum (Beijing), 31-3:38-39; 35-1:38

    Philadelphia Museum of Art, 36-1:30-32; 36-3:27

    Portland Art Museum (Oregon), J&J Collection, 34-1:37; 34-2:34

    Princeton University Museum, 32-1:29; 35-1:23, 32-34; 38-2:48

    Qing vases of Anthony Cheung, 39-3:44

    Robert Hall gallery (June 2001), 33-2:35-36

    Robert Hall gallery (November 2002), 34-3:37-38

    Robert Kleiner gallery (November 2002), 34-3:38

    Royal Academy of Arts

      China: The Three Emperors, 1662-1795, 37-3:38-41, 49

      One Hundred Masterpieces of Imperial Chinese Ceramics, 30-3:31

      Return of the Buddha: The Qingzhou Discoveries, 34-2:28

    Royal Ontario Museum, 30-1:21

    San Francisco Arts of Pacific Asia (2006), 37-3:49

    Seattle Art Museum, 30-1:21; 30-2:23-24; 30-4:23

    Seattle Asian Art Museum, 30-2:22; 30-4:19-21

    St. Petersburg Museum of Fine Arts, 31-1:41

    State Museum of Oriental Art (Moscow), 30-4:14-17

    Strong Museum (Rochester, New York), 32-2:35

    Taipei Gallery (New York), 32-1:42

    Tobacco and Salt Museum (Tokyo), 30-2:29; 30-3:32; 32-3:37; 33-2:38-39

      trends in snuff bottle exhibitions, 36-2:4

    University of Michigan, Museum of Art at the, 35-2:41

    University Museum and Art Gallery (Hong Kong), Virtuous Treasures: Chinese Jades for the Scholar’s Table, 39-3:45

    Victoria and Albert Museum (London), 35-1:23

      Encounters: The Meeting of Asia and Europe, 36-3:35

    Walters Art Gallery (Baltimore, Maryland), 32-1:33; 32-3:27-28

Muwang (1001-945 b.c.), 34-2:7-8

 

N

New bottles, 31-2:22-30; 39-2:52-53

Nian Xiyao, 30-3:6-7; 35-3:17

Nicholson, Grace, 39-2:12-13

Nicollier, Vérène, 37-1:43; 39-3:44

Niu Junfang (artist), 39-3:11

North and South dynasties (420-589), dragon motif, 32-2:16

Northern Song period (960-1127 a.d.), 30-4:8; 34-2:28; 38-2:24-25

    interest in antique styles and motifs during, 32-3:5

    landscape art, 38-1:7

    luohan imagery, 30-4:10

Northern Wei period (386-581 a.d.), 34-2:28

    glassmaking in, 30-2:5, 7

 

O

Oldest snuff bottle, 38-3:41

One Bottle Studio, 39-3:17

Opium Wars, 31-1:28-29, 30-32; 34-1:10-11; 34-3:20; 36-2:25

 

P

Palindrome inscriptions, 39-3:4-7

Pan Yi'ao (Youshan), 45-2:17-23

Pan Yijun, 45-2:17, 22-23

Perfume bottles, 36-3:39

Photography, snuff bottle, 33-1:35

Pitt, Thomas, 32-2:9

Polishing snuff bottles, 37-2:23

Porcelain manufacturing

    blue and white porcelain, 32-1:8; 37-2:38

    European and Western influences, 30-3:4-6; 31-3:26-28

    European-Chinese trade, 34-1:8, 9

    imitations of other materials, 35-3:13-17

    introduction of famille-rose palette, 32-2:4-15

    Jingdezhen technique (convention lecture), 31-1:37; 31-3:26

    modern Jingdezhen production, 35-2:26-33

    peachbloom glaze, 38-3:33-34

    scholar art, 32-1:8

    technical and historical development, 34-1:22

 

Q

Qi, 32-1:16

Qian Hui’an, 30-1:17

Qianlong period (1735-1796), 30-1:30; 32-1:31-32; 33-2:35; 38-3:35

    badges of rank, 38-3:8-9, 11-12

    calligraphic arts, 34-3:12-13

    carving skills, 36-2:15, 19, 25

    Central Asian relations, 32-3:11

    cloisonn� work, 30-3:13; 39-1:37-38

    commemorations of military victories, 32-3:10-11

    design features, 36-3:38

    dragon motif, 31-3:15

    emperor’s life, 38-2:4-5, 20-21, 39, 40; 45-1:5

    emperor’s poetry, 38-2:5-14

    enameled snuff bottles, 36-1:3; 37-3:5, 7; 39-1:16-17

    European and Western influence, 33-1:6; 34-1:9; 36-2:5-6; 37-2:4-5, 6, 7

    famille-rose snuff bottles, 35-2:4-20

    glass cover bottles, 35-2:3

    glassmaking in, 30-2:10, 12-13, 14, 15-16; 32-1:20; 36-2:12-22

    Hall of Constancy, 35-1:20

    imitations of other materials in ceramic or glass, 35-3:15-16

    imperial architecture, 33-3:15

    imperial jade, 31-3:8-9

    imperial snuff bottle collection, 34-1:4-5; 45-1:4-17

    importance of jade, 32-3:9

    ivory snuff bottles, 32-2:3; 39-1:4-15

    Leshan Tang ji, 35-2:7-8

    life and culture, 31-1:28; 34-1:9-10; 34-3:13-14

    marks, 30-1:3, 30; 30-3:8; 31-2:16-17; 31-3:14-15, 24; 34-2:30; 34-3:7, 8, 9, 13; 35-3:38; 36-2:13, 16, 9; 37-3:7; 38-1:3, 28-30, 31-32; 38-3:40; 39-1:5, 6, 25-26; 39-2:49

    metal-encased glass bottles, 31-3:15-16

    military campaigns, 45-1:6

    painting style, 38-3:40

    porcelain arts, 30-3:6, 30-3:8-20; 30-4:15; 31-2:14-15; 32-2:12-15; 38-3:40; 39-1:26-28, 30

    porcelain figures, 30-4:3

    portrait of emperor, 33-1:15; 37-3:38, 39, 40; 38-2:4

    preferred materials, 32-1:15

    scholar art, 32-1:11

    significant features, 38-2:4

    sinicization model, 45-1:5

    Yuyong mark on bowl, 31-3:8

Qiao sisters, 32-1:36

Qin dynasty (221-206 b.c.), 34-1:6; 34-2:6-7; 34-3:8; 39-3:31

    bureaucracy, 38-3:4

Qing dynasty (1644-1912), 32-1:31-32; 34-1:8-9

    art motifs and symbolism, 31-2:10; 31-3:10; 33-1:4, 9-15; 34-1:14-15

    badges of rank, 38-3:4-12

    cloisonné, 30-3:12-13

    coins, 30-1:9

    corruption during, 39-3:11

    court archives, 36-2:5

    dates, 31-1:35

    dating and attribution of artworks, 36-2:9

    Daoist imagery on snuff bottles, 45-3:14-27

    distinctive features of snuff bottles, 33-1:4-5

    enameled snuff bottles, 37-3:5-9

    enamel work (convention lecture), 31-1:37-38; 31-3:26-28

    European and Western influence, 36-2:5-6; 38-2:39-42

    fake bronze snuff bottles, 37-3:11-13

    glassmaking in, 30-2:7-14, 15; 36-1:13-27; 36-2:12-29

    imitations of other materials in ceramic or glass, 35-3:13-15, 16

    imperial architecture, 32-1:30; 32-3:22; 33-1:13-14; 33-3:4-23

    interest in antique styles and motifs during, 32-3:4, 7, 17

    life and culture, 31-1:28-35; 31-2:4-11, 38; 32-3:23-24; 33-1:4-9; 36-2:7-8

    mask handle motif, 31-3:13

    opium use and trade, 34-3:20

    opposition to, 32-1:13, 16

    origins, 33-3:4; 38-2:39

    palindrome-inscribed bottles, 39-3:4-7

    porcelain, 30-3:4-6, 8-19; 32-1:8; 33-3:31; 34-1:22

    rebuses, 36-1:5-12

    regional relations, 33-1:7-8; 36-2:5-6

    reign marks, 31-2:15-16; 31-3:24; 38-1:28-30

    scholars in, 32-1:4, 5, 17

    snuff bottles, 34-1:14-16, 22; 36-2:12-29; 37-3:10-12; 38-3:38-39; 39-3:25

    social values, 32-3:6

    summer palaces, 33-3:4

    Taiping Rebellion, 31-1:29, 30; 31-2:4-8, 10-11; 34-3:20

    trends in research and scholarship, 36-2:5

    Western contact, 33-1:5-6, 8, 12-13; 34-1:8-9, 10-13

    Xinjiang jade, 33-1:8-9

Qingming Festival, 30-1:22-23

Qingquan, 33-3:3

Qin Shihuang, 34-1:6; 34-3:7-8

Qin Shihuangdi, 39-3:31, 32, 33

Qiushi. See Liu Xinkai (artist)

Qiushi (artist), 38-2:21-23

Qiu Wei, 34-2:18-19

Qiu Ying, 30-1:12-13

Qu Yuan, 36-1:4; 37-1:13

 

R

Rebuses and puns, 34-1:14; 35-2:23-24; 39-2:51; 45-3:20

    in badges of rank, 38-3:10-12

    for continuous reign, 36-1:5-7

    with monkey image, 36-3:8-15

    Qing dynasty, 36-1:5-12

Red Cliff themes, 36-3:18-23; 37-1:17-19

Reign marks. See INDEX OF PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF BOTTLES, REIGN MARKS

Renfu, 45-2:8

Ren Renfa (artist), 32-3:18

Research

    for collecting, 31-3:10

    future of snuff bottle scholarship, 36-2:6-11

    state of snuff bottle scholarship, 36-2:4-6

Ricci, Matteo, 30-2:7; 33-1:6; 34-1:8

Ripa, Matteo, 32-2:4

Rong Lu, 39-3:3

Rongsheng (artist), 45-2:4

Ruan Yuan, 34-3:17; 45-2:9

Ru wares, 30-3:4

Ruyi scepters, 32-1:7; 35-3:15

 

S

Scholars

    art objects and art motifs, 32-1:5-17; 36-2:8

    calligraphic arts, 32-1:5; 34-3:4, 5-6; 45-1:31

    examinations, 32-1:4, 5-6; 32-2:25-26

    leisure activities, 34-2:13-20

    persecutions, 34-1:6

    role of, 32-1:4, 5

    servants of, 32-1:17

    social class of, 32-1:4

    status of, in Chinese society and culture, 32-1:4-5; 38-1:6

    urbanization movement and, 38-1:6-9

Seal marks

    fakes and forgeries, 39-3:26

    See also INDEX OF PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF BOTTLES, SEAL MARKS

Shandong School, 34-1:15

Shang dynasty (1766-ca. 1050 b.c.), 30-1:11; 34-1:6

    calligraphic decoration, 32-3:16, 17

    inscribed writing, 35-3:7

Shegong, 30-4:10; 32-2:30

Shen Quanlin, 34-3:16

Shen Zhou, 37-1:16-17

Shi Chuan (artist), 35-1:28

Shishou Shanren (artist), 36-2:40

Shixiang, 34-2:29-30

Shi Yun, 30-1:3

Shouliang zhuren, 45-2:6-8

Shunzhi emperor

    bronze snuff bottles, 39-1:16

    Hall of Constancy and, 35-1:19

    imperial architecture, 33-3:5

Six Dynasties period (220-589)

    luohan imagery, 30-4:9-10

Size of snuff bottles, 35-1:21-23, 31; 36-2:13

Snuff bottles and snuff taking, 37-2:4, 20; 39-3:25

    Bavarian containers, 32-1:18-26

    declining interest in snuff taking, 34-1:5

    design requirements, 32-1:21

    in early Chinese fiction, 33-1:6-7

    hollowing, 39-1:7

    origins and early development, 31-2:13-14; 33-1:4-5; 34-1:4, 9; 36-1:13-14; 37-3:10; 38-3:38

    outside of China, 32-1:18

    physical aspects of snuff bottles. See INDEX OF PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF BOTTLES

    Qing dynasty, 34-1:14-16, 22

    scholar art, 32-1:9-17

    size of snuff bottles, 35-1:21-23, 31; 36-2:13

Song dynasty (960-1279), 39-3:22

    calligraphic decoration, 32-3:16-17

    celadon ware, 32-1:6

    dragon motif, 32-2:17, 18, 2:20-21

    imitations of other materials in ceramic, 35-3:13

    interest in antique styles and motifs during, 32-3:4-6

    lacquer work, 32-3:14

    porcelain, 30-3:4; 34-1:22; 35-3:35

    rock motif, 32-1:9

    scholars in, 32-1:4, 5, 7

Stoppers, 36-3:35-36

    Japanese, 39-1:8

    official’s-hat form, 31-3:8; 33-1:14-15

    selection of, 31-3:9-10

    significance of, 31-3:9

Studio of Accumulated Antiquity, 34-3:17

Studio of Appreciation of Imperial Favor, 37-1:34

Stumpf, Killian, 30-2:8; 31-3:32; 32-1:20; 32-3:11; 36-1:14

Su, Prince, 33-3:3

Su Dong Bo, 34-3:18

Su Feng-yi (Su Yi Feng) (artist), 30-4:36; 37-1:43; 37-2:15; 39-3:13

Sui dynasty (581-618), 30-1:12; 34-1:22

Sun Guoting, 34-2:29

Sun Shihua (artist), 32-3:18

Sun Xingwu (artist), 32-3:32; 34-1:17; 36-1:39

Suo Jing (artist), 34-2:35-37; 39-3:16

Su Shi (Su Shih), 34-3:18; 36-3:18-22; 37-1:18-19; 38-2:34

Su Wu, 32-3:35; 33-2:3; 35-2:24-25

Suyun daoren, 38-2:27-29; 39-3:3

Suzhou style, 38-3:38

    agate snuff bottles, 32-1:37; 35-2:36

    auctions

      Hong Kong 1997, 30-1:29, 30

      Hong Kong 1998, 30-3:32

      Hong Kong 2000, 32-3:33

      Hong Kong 2004, 36-2:39

      London 2001, 33-2:37; 33-3:35

      London 2002, 34-2:29-30

      London 2004, 36-3:36-37

      New York 1998, 30-3:26; 30-4:34

      New York 2004, 36-1:36, 40

      New York 2005, 37-1:34-35

      New York 2013, 45-1:39, 40

    record auction price, 34-2:30

    calligraphy, 34-3:14

    characteristics, 30-4:16; 39-1:19

    coconut-shell snuff bottles, 45-2:6

    cover bottles, 37-3:3; 39-1; 39-2:3

    growth in 19th century, 31-2:9

    nephrite carving, 32-3:3; 33-1:10

 

T

Taiping Rebellion, 31-1:29, 30; 31-2:4-8, 10-11, 18; 34-1:11; 34-3:20; 36-2:25, 31

Taiwan, Imperial snuff bottle collection in, 34-1:4-5

Takeuchi Seiho, 37-2:15-16

Tang dynasty (618-907), 38-3:34

    dragon motif, 32-2:18

    historical and political developments, 32-3:4

    luohan imagery, 30-4:10

    porcelain, 30-3:4; 34-1:22; 35-3:35-36

    scholars in, 32-1:4

Tang Ying, 30-3:6, 7-19; 32-2:11-12, 14-15; 35-2:4-6, 8, 13; 35-3:17; 38-2:7-13 (passim)

Tang Zichuan (artist), 33-3:34

Tan Xinpei, 30-4:32; 32-1:36; 32-3:32; 34-2:31

Tao Yuanming, 30-1:13-14; 34-2:14-15, 16, 17

Tea, 32-1:9; 34-2:22

    Yixing teapots, 34-2:27, 32

Thomson, Kenneth, 39-3:23-24

Three Kingdoms period (220-265), 30-4:8

Tianbao period (742-755), 38-2:25

Tibet, 30-1:9-10; 34-3:37

    Qing dynasty, 33-1:7-8, 13-14, 15; 36-2:5

Tiger legends and symbolism, 30-4:5-12

Tongzhi Restoration, 36-2:25-26, 27-28

Trompe l’oeil, 30-3:4-22

Tsuda Family, 31-2:3; 33-3:31; 35-1:25

 

U

Ulugh Beg, 32-3:11

 

W

Wang Bingrong (artist), 32-3:35; 33-2:36-37; 35-1:29; 36-1:37; 36-2:8; 37-1:36; 39-3:29, 38

    cover bottles, 45-1:3

Wang (C. C.) Jiqian (artist), 37-1:5, 37-1:6

Wang Du (artist), 45-2:4

Wang Fengzhu, 45-2:16-17

Wang Guangyu (Wang Guanyu) (artist), 30-4:36; 33-1:39; 37-1:41; 39-3:13

Wang Hui (artist), 34-1:17

Wang Qingfang (artist), 39-3:17

Wang Shi (artist), 32-3:35

Wang Shizhen, 36-1:13; 45-3:4

Wang Su (artist), 31-2:9; 31-3:14; 39-1:24

Wang Wei, 34-2:15-16

Wang Wenshao, 32-3:33

Wang Xisan (artist), 30-4:7; 31-2:35; 31-3:20; 32-2:21; 32-3:20, 35; 33-1:33, 36; 34-1:34; 34-2:35; 35-1:23, 29; 37-1:41; 38-2:20, 23-24, 44; 39-1:16, 17; 39-3:8, 10, 13, 15, 17, 20

Wang Xizhi, 31-3:12, 13; 32-3:14; 34-3:10; 35-1:34; 39-3:14

Wang Xueming (artist), 39-3:15

Wang Zhenpeng (artist), 32-2:20

Wanli period (1573-1620), 30-3:6; 32-3:19

Watteau, Jean-Antoine, 37-2:5

Weidong, Yao (artist), 38-3:3

Wei Yingwu, 34-2:18

Western influences. See European and Western influences

Wu Cheng’en, 36-3:7

Wude reign. See Gaozu, Emperor

Wu Gang, 31-3:20-21

Wu Song, 30-4:5

Wu Tao (artist), 31-2:7

Wu Ti, Emperor (140-87 b.c.), 30-1:8

Wu Xijiu (artist), 36-2:29

Wu Yuchuan (artist), 36-2:31; 38-1:23-27, 30, 31

Wu Zetian, Empress (609-705), 32-3:14-15

Wu zhu coins, 30-1:8-9

Wu Zixu, 32-2:20

 

X

Xianfeng period (1850-1861), 36-2:27

    porcelain work, 31-2:18

    sociopolitical environment, 31-1:28-29; 31-2:8

Xiangjun (artist), 38-2:30

Xiaoxia (artist), 36-2:39

Xiao-Xiang, 37-1:13

Xichi (artist), 34-3:16, 18-19

Xie An, 34-2:10

Xie Dingahu, 30-4:5

Xifeng shanfren, 31-3:12

Xingyouheng Tang (Hall of Constancy), 30-1:30, 35; 30-3:13; 35-1:19-20; 36-2:39

    hallmark, 39-1:21-22

Xinluo Shanren (artist), 34-3:16

Xiwangmu, 31-3:20

Xuantong, Emperor (1908-1912), Ma Shaoxuan’s portrait of, 30-1:31; 30-2:27

Xuanwu, 33-2:6

Xuanzhuang, 36-3:7

Xuanzong, Emperor (713-755), 38-2:25

Xu Liwei (artist), 39-3:8

 

Y

Yang Boda, 37-3:12

Yang He Tang, 30-1:27

Yang Xiang, 30-4:5

Yangzhou School, 30-1:27; 32-3:18-19; 38-1:31-32; 39-3:19

    auctions

      Hong Kong 2000, 32-3:32

      London 1999, 31-3:39

      London 2001, 33-2:37

      London 2006, 38-3:36

      New York 2000, 32-1:36

      New York 2001, 33-3:30

      New York 2002, 34-1:33

    calligraphy, 34-3:14, 16-17

    cover bottles, 36-2:3

    style, 36-2:20-21

Yan Yutian (artist), 34-3:3; 39-3:20

Yan Yutien (artist), 36-2:32

Yao Mendong (artist), 34-1:33

Ye Bengqi (artist), 30-4:32; 32-1:36-37; 32-3:35; 33-1:34; 34-1:33-34; 34-3:36; 36-3:26-27; 37-3:10, 12, 13-17, 46; 39-1:16, 17; 39-3:8, 10, 17, 20

Ye family, 34-2:35; 39-1:16-17; 39-3:8

Yen Yutian (artist), 36-1:38

Ye Shuying (artist), 32-3:35; 39-3:8

Ye Studio, 30-1:16

Ye Xiaofeng (artist), 30-3:32; 31-2:35; 34-3:36; 39-3:8, 10, 17

Ye Zhongsan (artist), 30-1:17; 30-3:25; 30-4:8; 33-1:35; 34-1:14, 15-16, 17; 34-2:31; 35-1:34; 36-3:5, 6; 37-2:11; 38-2:20, 26, 31; 39-1:16-17; 39-3:40; 45-3:7, 8

    auctions, 39-3:35

      Beijing 2005, 37-3:47

      Hong Kong 2000, 32-3:35, 36

      London 1999, 31-3:34

      London 2003, 35-2:37

      London 2006, 38-2:45-46

      New York 1999, 31-2:34-35

      New York 2000, 32-1:36; 33-1:33

      New York 2002, 34-1:34

      New York 2003, 35-1:29

      New York 2005, 37-1:31-32, 35

    cover bottle, 34-3:29

    hundred boys theme, 35-1:21-22

Yian, 33-3:3

Yijing, 35-2:23-24

Yijin (Yizhin) zhai, 36-2:7; 37-1:34

Yikuang, 34-3:3

Yin Chang, 35-1:30

Yin Xi, 30-1:23

Yin-yang, 33-3:5

Yinghe, 45-3:9

Yiru Jushi (artist), 30-3:25

Yixing workshops, 31-2:8

    auctions

      New York 2002, 34-1:33

      New York 2005, 37-1:36

    cover bottles, 37-2:3

    earthenware, 45-3:7

    modern ceramic production, 34-2:22-27

    pottery, 32-1:9

    significance of, 37-2:3

    snuff bottles, 32-1:9-10; 34-2:19

    stoneware, 32-2:8

Yong Huang, 35-1:20

Yongle, Emperor, imperial architecture, 33-3:5

Yongluo, Emperor, 32-2:19

Yongxing, 36-2:7

Yongzheng period (1723-1735), 35-1:19; 36-2:5; 38-2:25

    base marks, 32-1:16; 32-2:10 11; 37-3:7

    embellished glass bottles, 31-2:34

    enameled snuff bottles 37-3:5

    famille-rose enamels, 32-2:9-12

    glassmaking in, 30-2:12, 14; 35-3:22; 36-1:20-27

    imitations of other materials in ceramic, 35-3:14-15

    imperial architecture, 33-3:4-5

    ivory snuff bottles, 39-1:13-14

    Palace Workshop snuff bottles, 37-2:29-37

    porcelain work, 30-3:6, 7; 35-2:4, 6; 37-3:11

    portrait of emperor, 37-3:38, 39

    reign marks, 31-2:15-16; 31-3:24; 34-3:9; 39-1:27-28

Young, Mary Margaret (Meriem Collection), 39-3:36

Youshan, 45-2:17-23

Yu, Emperor, 37-1:10, 12

Yu the Great Taming the Waters, 45-1:6-7

Yu Guoding (artist), 31-3:12

Yu Zhonglin, 32-2:18-19

Yuan dynasty (1260-1368), 34-1:7-8

Yuanmingyuan, 30-1:27; 30-4:31; 31-1:42

    destruction of, 34-1:11; 36-2:12

    glasswork, 36-2:12-13

    Qing period, 33-1:10

Yuan period (1260-1368)

    anti-Mongol expression, 32-3:18

    nephrite bowl, 32-1:6

Yuan Shi Kai, 33-3:3

Yucheng (artist), 32-1:8

Yun Shixiang (artist), 39-2:3

Yun Shouping (artist), 31-3:13

Yunshan (artist), 45-2:4

 

Z

Zaichuan, 30-1:30

Zai Fu, 34-3:3

Zaifu, Prince, 32-3:33

Zaiquan, 35-1:19, 20

Zang Yingxuan, 30-3:6; 35-3:16-17

Zhang Bailing, 45-3:9

Zhang Bao Hua (artist), 38-3:37

Zhang Boatian (artist), 32-1:36; 34-1:17

Zhang Daoling, 33-2:8-9

Zhang Dingxi, 45-2:12-13

Zhang Fei, 30-4:8

Zhang Junping (artist), 39-3:15

Zhang Sengyou (artist), 32-2:29

Zhao Mengfu, 35-3:10-11

Zhao Qi, 31-3:14

Zhao Yun, 30-4:8

Zhao Zhiqian, 31-3:10-11; 36-2:8

Zheng Bangiao (artist), 34-3:16-17

Zhengde emperor, 39-1:27

Zheng Xie (artist), 34-3:16-17

Zhenwu, 33-2:6

Zhen Zhongsan (artist), 31-3:34

Zhiting school, 35-1:28; 36-1:36

Zhong Ji (artist), 32-1:36

Zhong Kui, 31-1:32-35, 43; 33-2:8; 36-1:5

Zhongli Quan, 45-3:14-15, 16

Zhou Chu, 30-4:5

Zhou dynasty (1122-256 b.c.), 30-1:12; 34-1:6

    calligraphic decoration, 32-3:16

    glassmaking, 32-3:11

          as Golden Age, 32-3:4

    inscribed genealogy, 35-3:7

    snake mythology, 33-2:5

Zhou Hongbin (artist), 32-3:33; 33-2:37

Zhou Honglai, 36-2:29; 39-3:40

Zhou Hongli (artist), 32-1:12

Zhou Leyuan (artist), 31-2:5; 34-1:15, 17; 34-2:16; 34-3:17, 36; 35-1:34; 36-2:9; 38-1:41; 39-3:9, 19, 20; 45-3:7-8

    auctions

      Hong Kong 2000, 32-3:31, 32

      Hong Kong 2004, 36-2:40

      London 1999, 31-3:34

      London 2001, 33-2:37

      New York 1999, 31-2:35

      New York 2000, 32-3:29; 33-1:33

      New York 2004, 36-1:38-39

    cover bottle, 34-3:3

Zhou Shaoyuan (artist), 36-2:39

Zhou Zhiyan, 34-3:16

Zhubin, 31-3:14

Zhu Geliang, 39-3:16

Zhu Xuan (artist), 39-3:19

Ziaquan, 32-3:33

Zitan wood, 32-1:7-8

Ziyizi (artist), 32-3:33; 35-1:7-8

Ziyu, 31-3:12

Zong Bing, 37-1:12

Zunghars, 33-1:7

Zuo Shiyong, 32-2:4-5